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# Help GitHub correctly report the project language
*.v linguist-language=Verilog

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© IBM Corp. 2020
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"), as modified by the terms below; you may not use the files in this
repository except in compliance with the License as modified.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

Modified Terms:

1) For the purpose of the patent license granted to you in Section 3 of the License, the "Work" hereby includes implementations of
the work of authorship in physical form.

2) Notwithstanding any terms to the contrary in the License, any licenses necessary for implementation of the Work that are available
from OpenPOWER via the Power ISA End User License Agreement (EULA) are explicitly excluded hereunder, and may be obtained from OpenPOWER
under the terms and conditions of the EULA.

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, the reference design distributed under the License is distributed on an
"AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language
governing permissions and limitations under the License.

Additional rights, including the ability to physically implement a softcore that is compliant with the required sections of the Power
ISA Specification, are available at no cost under the terms of the OpenPOWER Power ISA EULA, which can be obtained (along with the Power
ISA) here:

Brief explanation of modifications:

Modification 1: This modification extends the patent license to an implementation of the Work in physical form i.e.,
it unambiguously permits a user to make and use the physical chip.

Modification 2: This modification clarifies that licenses for the Power ISA are provided via the (royalty-free) Power ISA EULA,
and not under this license. To prevent fragmentation of the Power ISA, the Power ISA EULA requires that Power ISA Cores be
licensed consistent with the terms of the Power ISA EULA. By ensuring that rights available via the Power ISA EULA are received
under (and subject to) the EULA, this consistency is maintained in accordance with the terms of the EULA. Any necessary additional
licenses for the specific Power ISA Core are granted under this modified Apache license.

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# A2O

## The Project
This is the release of the A2O POWER processor core RTL and associated FPGA implementation (using ADM-PCIE-9V3 FPGA).

See [Project Info](rel/ for details.

## The Core
The [A2O core](rel/doc/A2O_UM.pdf) was created to optimize single-thread performance, and targeted 3+ GHz in 45nm technology.

It is a 27 FO4 implementation, with an out-of-order pipeline supporting 1 or 2 threads. It fully supports Power ISA 2.07 using Book III-E.
The core was also designed to support pluggable implementations of MMU and AXU logic macros.
This includes elimination of the MMU and using ERAT-only mode for translation/protection.

## The History

The A2O design was a follow-on to A2I, written in Verilog, and supported a lower thread count than A2I, but higher performance per thread, using out-of-order execution
(register renaming, reservation stations, completion buffer) and a store queue.

The A2L2 external interface is largely the same for the two cores.

## FPGA Implementation Notes

1. There are lots of knobs available for tweaking generation parameters. Very little experimentation was done to test whether they work, or the effects on area, etc.
2. Only single-thread generation has been done so far. The FPGA in use has very high utilization with one thread.
3. A2I used clk_1x and clk_2x (for some of the special arrays), but A2O also uses clk_4x. This (and possibly along with the area congestion) led to changing the clk_1x to 50MHz to lessen timing pressure
(both setup and hold misses).

### Technology Scaling

A comparison of the design in original technology and scaled to 7nm (SMT2, fixed-point, no MMU):

| |Freq |Pwr |Freq Sort|Pwr Sort|Area |Vdd |
|45nm |2.30 GHz |1.49 W | | |4.90 mm<sup>2</sup> |0.97 V |
| 7nm |3.90 GHz |0.79 W |4.17 GHz |0.85 W |0.31 mm<sup>2</sup> |1.1 V |
| 7nm |3.75 GHz |0.63 W |4.03 GHz |0.67 W |0.31 mm<sup>2</sup> |1.0 V |
| 7nm |3.55 GHz |0.49 W |3.87 GHz |0.52 W |0.31 mm<sup>2</sup> |0.9 V |
| 7nm |3.07 GHz |0.32 W |3.60 GHz |0.38 W |0.31 mm<sup>2</sup> |0.8 V |
| 7nm |2.40 GHz |0.20 W |3.00 GHz |0.25 W |0.31 mm<sup>2</sup> |0.7 V |

These estimates are based on a semicustom design in representative foundry processes (IBM 45nm/Samsung 7nm).

### Compliancy

The A2O core is compliant to Power ISA 2.07 and will need updates to be compliant with either version 3.0c or 3.1.
Power ISA 3.0c and 3.1 are the two Power ISA versions contributed to OpenPOWER Foundation by IBM. Changes will include:

* radix translation
* op updates, to eliminate noncompliant ones and add missing ones required for a given compliancy level
* various 'mode' and other changes to meet the open specification targeted compliancy level (III-E needs to be changed to III)

## Miscellaneous

1. A2O was not released as a product; the documentation was derived from A2I but is *much* less complete than the A2I version.
The documentation has been edited and updated where possible, but undoubtedly, there
remain errors vis a vis the RTL (especially likely in implementation-specific SPRs).

Please use 'issues' to report errors.

## Errata

1. There is a problem that is being circumvented by setting LSUCR0.DFWD=1, AND limiting the store queue size (currently at 4). While it appears
to be directly related to forwarding (L1 DC hit returns 0's instead of data), the store queue size also had to be limited.

Not debugged at this time; could be related to:
1. bad generation parm
2. bad edit for source updates related to compiling for Vivado
3. ???

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## Directory Structure


bd (project)
ip_cache (empty until project built)
ip_repo (empty until IP built/copied)
ip_user (IP macros to be built)
tcl (build scripts)


core user guide, etc.

## Build Process

### IP

IP is created in ip_user and copied to ip_repo for use in top level bd.

See build/ip_user/xxx/




Simple card components:


Help Vivado attach to VIO correctly:


### Project

See build/bd/

1. create project
2. synth/implement

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#### This is a short video showing the build process for A2O, as described in ```rel/```.

[A2O Build Process](