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More work in chapter 2.

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Bill Schmidt 4 years ago
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  1. 289
      Intrinsics_Reference/ch_biendian.xml

289
Intrinsics_Reference/ch_biendian.xml

@ -78,13 +78,17 @@ xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xml:id="VIPR.biendian"> @@ -78,13 +78,17 @@ xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xml:id="VIPR.biendian">
languages), these data types may be accessed based on the type
names listed in <xref linkend="VIPR.biendian.vectypes" /> when
Power ISA SIMD language extensions are enabled using either the
<code>vector</code> or <code>__vector</code> keywords. NOTE
THAT THIS IS THE FIRST TIME WE'VE MENTIONED THESE LANGUAGE
EXTENSIONS, NEED TO FIX THAT.
<code>vector</code> or <code>__vector</code> keywords. [FIXME:
We haven't talked about these at all. Need to borrow some
description from the AltiVec PIM about the usage of vector,
bool, and pixel, and supplement with the problems this causes
with strict-ANSI C++. Maybe a separate section on "Language
Elements" should precede this one.]
</para>
<para>
For the Fortran language, OH YET ANOTHER STINKING TABLE gives a
correspondence between Fortran and C/C++ language types.
For the Fortran language, [FIXME: link to table in later
section] gives a correspondence between Fortran and C/C++
language types.
</para>
<para>
The assignment operator always performs a byte-by-byte data copy
@ -413,9 +417,11 @@ register vector double vd = vec_splats(*double_ptr);</programlisting> @@ -413,9 +417,11 @@ register vector double vd = vec_splats(*double_ptr);</programlisting>
<title>Vector Operators</title>
<para>
In addition to the dereference and assignment operators, the
Power SIMD Vector Programming API (REALLY?) provides the usual
operators that are valid on pointers; these operators are also
valid for pointers to vector types.
Power SIMD Vector Programming API [FIXME: If we're going to use
a term like this, let's use it consistently; also, SIMD and
Vector are redundant] provides the usual operators that are
valid on pointers; these operators are also valid for pointers
to vector types.
</para>
<para>
The traditional C/C++ operators are defined on vector types
@ -452,6 +458,273 @@ register vector double vd = vec_splats(*double_ptr);</programlisting> @@ -452,6 +458,273 @@ register vector double vd = vec_splats(*double_ptr);</programlisting>

<section xml:id="VIPR.biendian.layout">
<title>Vector Layout and Element Numbering</title>
<para>
Vector data types consist of a homogeneous sequence of elements
of the base data type specified in the vector data
type. Individual elements of a vector can be addressed by a
vector element number. Element numbers can be established either
by counting from the “left” of a register and assigning the
left-most element the element number 0, or from the “right” of
the register and assigning the right-most element the element
number 0.
</para>
<para>
In big-endian environments, establishing element counts from the
left makes the element stored at the lowest memory address the
lowest-numbered element. Thus, when vectors and arrays of a
given base data type are overlaid, vector element 0 corresponds
to array element 0, vector element 1 corresponds to array
element 1, and so forth.
</para>
<para>
In little-endian environments, establishing element counts from
the right makes the element stored at the lowest memory address
the lowest-numbered element. Thus, when vectors and arrays of a
given base data type are overlaid, vector element 0 will
correspond to array element 0, vector element 1 will correspond
to array element 1, and so forth.
</para>
<para>
Consequently, the vector numbering schemes can be described as
big-endian and little-endian vector layouts and vector element
numberings.
</para>
<para>
For internal consistency, in the ELF V2 ABI, the default vector
layout and vector element ordering in big-endian environments
shall be big endian, and the default vector layout and vector
element ordering in little-endian environments shall be little
endian. [FIXME: Here's a purported ABI requirement; should this
somehow remain part of the ABI document?]
</para>
<para>
This element numbering shall also be used by the <code>[]</code>
accessor method to vector elements provided as an extension of
the C/C++ languages by some compilers, as well as for other
language extensions or library constructs that directly or
indirectly refer to elements by their element number.
</para>
<para>
Application programs may query the vector element ordering in
use by testing the __VEC_ELEMENT_REG_ORDER__ macro. This macro
has two possible values:
</para>
<informaltable frame="none" rowsep="0" colsep="0">
<tgroup cols="2">
<colspec colname="c1" colwidth="40*" />
<colspec colname="c2" colwidth="60*" />
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>
<para>__ORDER_LITTLE_ENDIAN__</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Vector elements use little-endian element ordering.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>__ORDER_BIG_ENDIAN__</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Vector elements use big-endian element ordering.</para>
</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
</section>

<section>
<title>Vector Built-In Functions</title>
<para>
Some of the POWER SIMD hardware instructions refer, implicitly
or explicitly, to vector element numbers. For example, the
<code>vspltb</code> instruction has as one of its inputs an
index into a vector. The element at that index position is to
be replicated in every element of the output vector. For
another example, <code>vmuleuh</code> instruction operates on
the even-numbered elements of its input vectors. The hardware
instructions define these element numbers using big-endian
element order, even when the machine is running in little-endian
mode. Thus, a built-in function that maps directly to the
underlying hardware instruction, regardless of the target
endianness, has the potential to confuse programmers on
little-endian platforms.
</para>
<para>
It is more useful to define built-in functions that map to these
instructions to use natural element order. That is, the
explicit or implicit element numbers specified by such built-in
functions should be interpreted using big-endian element order
on a big-endian platform, and using little-endian element order
on a little-endian platform.
</para>
<para>
The descriptions of the built-in functions in <xref
linkend="VIPR.vec-ref" /> contain notes on endian issues that
apply to each built-in function. Furthermore, a built-in
function requiring a different compiler implementation for
big-endian than it uses for little-endian has a sample
compiler implementation for both BE and LE. These sample
implementations are only intended as examples; designers of a
compiler are free to use other methods to implement the
specified semantics as they see fit.
</para>
<section>
<title>Extended Data Movement Functions</title>
<para>
The built-in functions in <xref
linkend="VIPR.biendian.vmx-mem" /> map to Altivec/VMX load and
store instructions and provide access to the “auto-aligning”
memory instructions of the VMX ISA where low-order address
bits are discarded before performing a memory access. These
instructions access load and store data in accordance with the
program's current endian mode, and do not need to be adapted
by the compiler to reflect little-endian operating during code
generation.
</para>
<table frame="all" pgwide="1" xml:id="VIPR.biendian.vmx-mem">
<title>VMX Memory Access Built-In Functions</title>
<tgroup cols="3">
<colspec colname="c1" colwidth="15*" align="center" />
<colspec colname="c2" colwidth="35*" align="center" />
<colspec colname="c3" colwidth="50*" />
<thead>
<row>
<entry>
<para>
<emphasis role="bold">Built-in Function</emphasis>
</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>
<emphasis role="bold">Corresponding POWER
Instructions</emphasis>
</para>
</entry>
<entry align="center">
<para>
<emphasis role="bold">Implementation Notes</emphasis>
</para>
</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_ld</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>lvx</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_lde</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>lvebx, lvehx, lvewx</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_ldl</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>lvxl</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_st</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>stvx</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_ste</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>stvebx, stvehx, stvewx</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry>
<para>vec_stl</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>stvxl</para>
</entry>
<entry>
<para>Hardware works as a function of endian mode.</para>
</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
<para>
Previous versions of the VMX built-in functions defined
intrinsics to access the VMX instructions <code>lvsl</code>
and <code>lvsr</code>, which could be used in conjunction with
<code>vec_vperm</code> and VMX load and store instructions for
unaligned access. The <code>vec_lvsl</code> and
<code>vec_lvsr</code> interfaces are deprecated in accordance
with the interfaces specified here. For compatibility, the
built-in pseudo sequences published in previous VMX documents
continue to work with little-endian data layout and the
little-endian vector layout described in this
document. However, the use of these sequences in new code is
discouraged and usually results in worse performance. It is
recommended (but not required) that compilers issue a warning
when these functions are used in little-endian
environments. It is recommended that programmers use the
<code>vec_xl</code> and <code>vec_xst</code> vector built-in
functions to access unaligned data streams. See the
descriptions of these instructions in <xref
linkend="VIPR.vec-ref" /> for further description and
implementation details.
</para>
</section>
<section>
<title>Big-Endian Vector Layout in Little-Endian Environments
(Deprecated)</title>
<para>
Versions 1.0 through 1.4 of the 64-Bit ELFv2 ABI Specification
for POWER provided for optional compiler support for using
big-endian element ordering in little-endian environments.
This was initially deemed useful for porting certain libraries
that assumed big-endian element ordering regardless of the
endianness of their input streams. In practice, this
introduced serious compiler complexity without much utility.
Thus this support (previously controlled by switches
<code>-maltivec=be</code> and/or <code>-qaltivec=be</code>) is
now deprecated. Current versions of the gcc and clang
open-source compilers do not implement this support.
</para>
</section>
</section>

<section>
<title>Language-Specific Vector Support for Other
Languages</title>
<para>
filler
</para>

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